Growth of cancerous tissues in the lining of anal canal is diagnosed as anal cancer. The condition is not very common, but it can still occur in some patients. The affected area shows symptoms such as bleeding and pain. The treatment of the condition constitutes of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The surgery is performed in early stages of the condition to remove cancerous lesion or if the cancer is not responding to any of the treatments. Immunotherapy and palliative care are also required due to the basic function of defecation being affected.
Patients might have to opt for the services of a gastroenterologist, general surgeon, and medical and surgical oncologist for properly addressing the issue. The diagnosis process includes certain tests such as physical examination, ultrasound, biopsy along with specific imaging test such as CT scan, MRI, and PET scan. The 5-year survival rate for early diagnosed and localized anal cancer remains around 82% whereas in cases where spread to surrounding tissue and lymph node occurs, the survival rate dips to approximately 45%.